Antarctic deep-sea coral larvae may be resistant to climate change

The larval health of an Antarctic cold-water coral species may be resistant to warming water temperatures, a University of Maine study finds, bringing new hope for the climate change resilience of deep-sea ecosystems in the Western Antarctic Peninsula.

The study was published in the journal Coral Reefs. The research was funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation

The past few decades have shown unprecedented levels of warming in Earth’s polar regions. To date, the West Antarctic Peninsula has the most dramatic warming in the Southern Hemisphere, with expected water temperature increases between 0.5 and 1.9 degrees Celsius by 2100.

Because they are long-lived and slow-growing, deep-sea corals in these Antarctic waters will not adapt well to changing temperatures, particularly in the sensitive larval stage. Or so scientists thought.

“Although their habitat is now changing faster than other places around the world, most marine animals in the Southern Ocean are thought to have a limited capacity to adapt to environmental shifts,” says Julia Johnstone, principal author of the study. “Especially during the larval stage, when developmental processes are organizing and laying the foundations for key life-long functions like prey capture and growth, those environmental changes can have an outsize impact.”

Read more at: Antarctic deep-sea coral larvae may be resistant to climate change | NSF – National Science Foundation
Thanks and Credit to NSF

Wilkes Station 1957-1959 “New entry” as WAP MNB-17

From Jan 1957 through 6 February 1959 Wilkes was a Multinational Base (WAP MNB-NEW) managed by USA & Australia, then,  after a hand-over ceremony held on 7 February 1959, Wilkes Station became Australian (WAP AUS-Ø5).

In January 1957, Wilkes Station was established on the Clark Peninsula by the United States as part of their International Geophisical Yera (IGY) program. Antarctica was recognised as an area of major scientific importance during IGY, with 12 nations participating with programs.

US Navy personnel constructed the main part of Wilkes in 16 days, unloading 11,000 tons of material and supplies. It took a crew of over 100 to erect the station, which housed 24 naval personnel and scientists for the next 18 months. At the closure of IGY, the United States offered use of Wilkes to Australia.

Wilkes was seen to be strategically located because of its proximity to the south magnetic pole. Under an agreement with the United States, Australia was permitted to use the station stores and supplies that remained, on condition that nothing was removed and that Australia through reported annually on consumption of stores and supplies.

QSL of KC4USK 1957-1958 is qualify for  a Nerw Entry as WAP MNB-17.

TNX Olivier F6EPN (aka Spratley Woody on Facebook pages) for his great help in finding OLD QSL!

From Jan 1957 through 6 February 1959 Wilkes was a Multinational Base (WAP MNB-NEW) managed by USA & Australia, then,  after a hand-over ceremony held on 7 February 1959, Wilkes Station became Australian (WAP AUS-Ø5).

As Wilkes had originally been built as a temporary station, rapid deterioration occurred in the extreme Antarctic environment. By 1964, the buildings had become a fire hazard due to fuel seepage, and the constant drift snow buried structures for most of the year. The deteriorated wooden buildings needed constant repair.

A plan to realise a new station Casey Repstat  (Replacement station) was developed on the other side of the bay. Repstat was commissioned in 1969 and Wilkes was closed.

Wilkes station is now almost permanently frozen in ice and is only occasionally revealed every 4 or 5 years during a big thaw.

Many objects remain embedded in the ice. Visitors are often able to see the remains of the station through the ice, seemingly exactly as it was left.

What remains at Wilkes are a number of barracks buildings known as Clements huts. There are also the remnants of the semi-cylindrical canvas store buildings known as Jamesway huts.

Information taken from: Wilkes station – Australian Antarctic Program (


21th DCI,  19th WAP  & 13th IFFA  Meetings

Mondovì Section of the Italian Radio Amateurs Association, with the contribution of the Cassa di Risparmio di Savigliano Bank and with the patronage of the Presidency of the Regional Council of Piedmont, the Province of Cuneo, the City of Mondovì, the Municipality of Roccaforte Mondovì,  the A.R.I. National and C.R.P.V.A. has organized for the 21st consecutive year, an important international event aimed at highlighting the aspects related to Amateur Radio and the extraordinary historical, artistic and naturalistic heritage of the Italian territory.


DCI (Italian Castles Award), IFFA (Italian Flora and  Fauna Award) and WAP (Worldwide Antarctic Program), are 3 programs  much followed by the vast audience of OM all over the world, did gathered on last 17-18 september , over 120  Hams , some coming from Italy, Austria, Belgium and Switzerland, all joining the meeting held in the frame of the beautiful , Borgata Norea of Roccaforte Mondovì, where participants have been booking  at the Hotel Restaurant  Commercio,  in where,  all the works did take place.



For WAP section, this year,  IK1GPG Max has got the pleasure to show some of the last Antarctic articles published on the most prestigious  international Magazines  and showed the audience a video shot taken in Antarctica by  Lt Danilo Collino IZ1KHY who did participate as Army scout in the operations of the Italian Antarctic campaign 2021-2022.


TNX Max,  IK1GPG & Betty IK1QFM.

Broadcast  PNRA’s XXX Scientific Expedition on TV

In a special program by Oliviero Bergamini, the Italian National  TV did broadcast an interesting report . More than an hour has been  dedicated to PNRA’s  XXX scientific Expedition and Antarctica

Check at min 24,30 to see  Paride Legovini IAØ/IZ3SUS who has been active at Concordia Station  and gave several Hams Wolrd Wide a chance to work WAP MNB-Ø3 from dec 6th 2013 through nov. 2nd 2014


SKY-HI Camp KC4AAE, a “New Entry” in WAP-WADA Directory as WAP USA-49

WAP must thanks immensely our friend Olivier Dymala F6EPN, for his kind help in finding several interesting and unknown  details of the past Ham Radio activity. This time our attention is focused on a 61 years old QSL card: KC4AAE operated at Sky-Hi Camp 75° 15’ South, 77°10’ West  in a short window (Dec. 1961-Febr.1962).

A clear description on the rear side of KC4AAE card, says:

The Sky-Hi Station was constructed by five civilians: Floyd Johnson, Gordon Angus, Pat Caywood, Chuck Nuner and Steve Barnes. After we put a roof of a fashion over our heads, we constructed the ionosphere and magnetic buildings, installed the scientific equipment and finally set up the ham rig (no doubt many hams feel this should have been in reverse order!) Because this is a remote QTH (650 miles from Byrd, 1300 miles from McMurdo) it is probable that this immediate area had not been visited previously.  Certainly no station had been established here before. This station was the southern end of a high latitude, magnetically conjugate point program with the Northern end in Canada. Simultaneous  ionospheric and magnetic measurements were carefully made during the Antarctic Summer from early December 1961 until February 1962. In addition, interesting meteorological observations were recorded.

Based on this evidence,  KC4AAE, operated from early December 1961, until February 1962 from Sky-Hi Camp at Ellsworth Land,  75° 15’ South, 77°10’ West , is eligible for a new WAP reference.  It has been given as WAP USA-49 which will entry on the next release of WAP-WADA Directory of January 2023.

The actual Eights Station WAP USA Ø7 on WAP WADA Directory, listed a “Eights Station (Sky Hi Camp)”, will be though spitted into  Eights Station WAP USA-Ø7 and Sky-Hi Camp WAP USA-49 and KC4AAE listed on WAP-WACA Directory of Antarctic callsigns, under  WAP USA-49

TNX Olivier F6EPN


Eights Station  derives his name  from the United States Antarctic Research Program (USARP) project Sky-Hi, in which Camp Sky-Hi (later designated Eight Station) set up in Ellsworth Land in November 1961 as a conjugate point station to carry on simultaneous measurements of the earth’s magnetic field and of the ionosphere.

Eights Station (WAP USA-Ø7) was established  as permanent exploration base from January 1963 to November 1965,in what was the Sky –Hi Camp  located on Ellsworth Land about 1100 km from Byrd Station (WAP USA-19) and 2400 km from McMurdo (WAP USA-22) The station consisted of 11 prefabricated buildings that were brought in via planes and located on the site of the former “Sky-Hi” airlift project temporary scientific camp. The station was named for James Eights who was the first American Naturalist who visited Antarctica at the beginning of the 19th Century. The station was initially supported by 6 scientists and 5 Armed Forces attendants and included observations on meteorology, the ionosphere, geomagnetism, aurora and radio waves. At its peak, Eights Station hosted 27 personnel,  including individuals from the U.S. Antarctic Research Program Summer Party

Indian Post Office Away From India

India does have the strongest and the largest postal network in the world. India also has a post office at the southernmost tip of the world in the continent of Antarctica.

Established at the scientific base station of  Dakshin Gangotri  (WAP IND-Ø1) during the third Indian Expedition to Antarctica. It was first became operational on February 24, 1984 which was later brought under the Department of Post at Goa on January 26, 1988.

This post office was established with the name the Dakshin Gangotri PO and comes under the Department of Post of Goa. Scientist G. Sudhakar Rao was appointed as the first Honorary Postmaster.

The post office at Dakshin Gangotri was part of multiple support systems, which also includes an ice-melting plant, laboratories, storage, accommodation, recreation facilities, a clinic and a bank counter.

However, when the base submerged, the post office was decommissioned in the year of 1990. Later in,  with the establishment of the Maitri Base (WAP-IND- Ø3) a post office was also established named Maitri S.O.

A special postage stamp of  Rs. 1.00 was issued in 1989 commemorating the PO building in its ice-bound surroundings in Antarctica.



TNX VU3BPZ Bhagwati

Working a Station in Antarctica is always a Great Experience (CQ Magazine, Sept. 2022 issue)

This month, the prestigious American CQ Magazine dedicates a couple of pages about the fondness,  of the most rare DX in the career of a Radio Amateur: connecting Scientific Bases in Antarctica!
The report is written by our great friend Bob Hines K4MZU with a foreword by another “Big Ham”, N2OO Robert W Schenck


N2OO (pic on the right) writes:  
«As I have often related, chasing DX isn’t always about the DXCC or CQ DX Awards. Sometimes, the chase is for a more specific goal. In this case, I have passed the keyboard over to Bob Hines, K4MZU, who will give you a little insight into amateur radio activity in Antarctica over the years and a look at the Worldwide Antarctic Program (WAP). Working Antarctica stations has always been exciting for me, although I never chased a particular award for doing so. But I always tried to get a QSL card from every station I could work. I hope you enjoy Bob’s article this month! – 73 de N2OO»



Working a Station in Antarctica is always a Great Experience

By Bob Hines, K4MZU (on the pic below)

Logging stations operating from Antarctica has been the best DX many can wish for. Several Hams, particularly the old timers, have progressed far but just a few of them have over 200 Antarctic bases in their logs.
This takes years and years of continuous monitoring, setting skeds, following Antarctic expeditions and scientific seasons, all with only one goal; to work a new one. Bases, camps, huts, refuges, and rare scientific sites are the rewards of ample research done by these Antarctic DX hounds. Currently, there are many different Antarctic DX programs and awards available from Argentina, Australia, France, Italy, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. Two sought-after Antarctic awards are sponsored by the Worldwide Antarctic Program from Italy, with Gianni, I1HYW, and Massimo, IK1GPG, at the helm; and the Polar DX Group managed by Mehdi, F5PFP. Among those meticulous Antarctic hunters is yours truly, Bob, K4MZU. I have achieved the popular WAP Top Honor Roll, top of W.A.P. Worldwide Antarctic Program, WADA Award, 202 Antarctic Bases and WACA Award, with 513 Antarctic stations’ callsigns. I have also achieved the top Antarctic Challenge 2022 Award with 203 Antarctic/sub-Antarctic bases and refuges. Please visit my Antarctic website at to see my Antarctic QSL collection.

Here’s a look back at my long devotion to chasing stations in Antarctica. After getting licensed in 1959 (age 16), I immediately started working DX (no problem with a SFI of 270-290).

Then, I snagged my first Antarctic contact, VP8EH … and I was hooked. Working stations like KC4USE/mm (USCGS Eastwind), KC4AAA/mm (USCGS Eltanin), KC4USR/mm (USS Arnet) and KC4USG/mm (USS Glacier), all late night with polar flutter and often the only signals on the band, was a genuine delight. Later on, from 1970 to 1995 with a much-improved station, I would team up with Larry, K1IED (SK). He would handle phone patches (No satellite phones for personal use then) for KC4USV (McMurdo Station), KC4AAA (South Pole Station), and KC4AAC (Palmer Station). I would do the same for many of the smaller remote sites such as KC4USB (Byrd Surface Camp), KC4USX (Williams Field), KC4AAF (Upstream Bravo Camp), KC4AAG (Terra Nova Bay Camp), and renowned Mr. Henry Perk, VEØHSS/am, who I often claimed would fly from one Antarctic camp to the next in his Twin Otter like I might visit the 7/11 down the street. All during the period from 1959 until now, I have been fortunate to log numerous Antarctic stations from different countries that are signatories of the Antarctic Treaty. Some were quite rare at the time: LU3ZY (South Sandwich Argentinian Station), ATØA (Dakshin Gangotri Indian Station), VKØVK (Australian Wilkes Station), 3YØC (Norwegian Research Station Bouvet), R1ANH (Russkaya Russian Station), and Astronaut Owen Garriott, KC4/W5LFL (SK) at Multi National Patriot Hills Station. Being a passionate Antarctic DX Chaser, one feels compelled to help with QSL responsibilities. Accordingly, over the years I gladly became QSL Manager for LU1ZC (now QSL via LU2CN), VP8AWU, VP8MS, VP8DPC/mm, VP8SIX, C6AMD/mm, R1ANW (op. Henry), KC4/KH6JNF, KC4/KA7DHE, KC4/KC7GJJ, KC4AAF (ops. Sarah, Henry, and Ted), KC4AAG (op. Oriel), KC4/VEØHSS, KC4AAC (op. Janet), (currently KC4AAC, KC4AAA, and KC4USV all are QSL via K7MT), KC4USX (op. Henry), and KC4/KL7RL. I’m 79 years young now and would love to have operated from the ice. Nevertheless, the reality that I have acquired many friendships with those fortunate enough to travel there, along with my fellow Antarctic DX chasers is, most gratifying.


South Africa’s Borga Base, WAP ZAF-Ø8

Established in May 1969  at 72°57’54.18″ South, -3°47’47.25 West,  Borga Base was a  semi-permanent scientific research base operated by South Africa in Antarctica (1969-1976) located 350 kilometers (220 mi) south of South Africa’s primary Antarctic research station SANAE I

Borga Base was created with the support of Belgian aircraft during the International Geophisical Year and was inaugurated in 1969. Its main building was a Parcoll hut, a long hut with a semicircular frame resembling half a cylinder.

In the years of its operation (the main research activities of Borga Base were geological surveying and weather monitoring), expedition teams would attempt the traverse from SANAE to Borga Base using specialized tractors, though they were not always successful. In 1969, mechanic Gordon Mackie was the first casualty of South African Antarctic research when he fell to his death on the traverse between the two bases. In 1970, mechanical and weather difficulties forced the team to abandon their attempt to reach Borga. In 1971, mechanical issues once again prevented the team from reaching Borga Base so they created , another semi-permanent station (Grunehogna Base WAP ZAF-NEW), using a prefabricated hut.

WAP thanks immensely our friend Oliver F6EPN  who,  with the pubblication of the old QSL of ZS1AMB active  from Borga Base in 1969, allowed us to complete the story of this Base been on the air, thanks to Chris Muir ZS6BCT (radio operator of the Borga Team expedition),


South Africa’s  Borga Base operate by ZS1AMB Nov. 1969. (QSL via ZS6BBK) is listed  on WAP-WADA Directory as WAP ZAF-Ø8.


TNX Olivier F6EPN for his great help


ANTARCTIC News Bulletin, pubblished by New Zealand Antarctic Society   March, 1970 at page 387-388 reports:

Good use was made of South Africa’s new Borga Base, erected last year with the aid of Belgian aircraft during the joint summer expedition. The new base enables geologists to explore new areas and makes it possible to undertake research over a far greater area.


Borga Base, a 4-man wintering-over station, was established during May 1969 near Huldreslottet Nunatak (72° 50’S, 3° 48’W), some 350 km. due south of SANAE. The detailed geological investigation of the Kirwan Escarpment, particularly the Tunga region, was completed during the post-winter field-season and Antarctic history was made when the hitherto virgin region of the Escarpment between 5° and 7°W, was mapped during mid-summer 1969/70. The field parties progressed up to the south easternmost continuation of the Escarpment and could clearly see in the distance Heimefrontfjella where British geologists mapped in previous years. The inland base has proved to be a great success and Anton Aucamp and Leon Wolmarans (geologists), Chris Muir (radio operator) and Wilfred Hodsdon (leader and veteran of three expeditions) survived the wintering over extremely well.

11th Expedition geologists and support personnel have already taken over the Base for the 1970-season, during which it is hoped to complete the detailed mapping of the Basement rocks exposed along the Escarpment and in the Juletoppane (72° 30’S, 06°W).

The 11th Expedition will also establish a safe route across the Pencksokka from Borga Base on to the Polar Plateau. This will be used as the first stage of a 600-km over snow traverse from SANAE via Borga up to the northernmost turning point of the U.S. South Pole-Queen Maud Land Traverse. It is anticipated that this geophysical-glaciological traverse will take place after the winter of 1971.


Captain K. T. McNish, master M.V. R.S.A., repeated his 1964-radar survey of more than 350 km. of ice front in the King Haakon VII Sea. Significant changes in the configuration of the ice front have been recorded during the intervening five years. The most important change is the calving of nearly two-thirds (ca 1800km2) of Trolltunga, the more than 120 km. long ice tongue along the Greenwich Meridian. This event is undoubtedly of major glaciological and cartographic significance. Off-shore echo soundings have also indicated that the break-away point of the continental shelf lies at approximately 700 fathoms and that the continental slope is a very steep (1:4), linear feature. It was planned to extend the coastal survey during the present relief but close pack ice has thus far prevented any further penetration to the East.


1969 ended tragically with the unex-pected death of Gordon Mackie, Mechanic of SANAE 10. Three expedition members, including the late Mr. Mackie, left SANAE for Borga Base to collect a broken down tractor and make magnetic observations. On December 3, 1969, having completed the observations for the day, Mr. Mackie went to look at a windscoop, fell into it and was killed instantly. He is the first member of a South African team to be killed in the Antarctic. The burial will take place at East London, Cape Province after the RSA has returned from the Antarctic.


SANAE II, comprising 18 members, left Cape Town on January 10. 1970, for the Antarctic. The journey was uneventful and the transfer of the four expedition members to Borga Base, approximately 2 km. southeast of SANAE. The existing base at SANAE was erected at the beginning of 1962 and will be replaced by a new base at the beginning of 1971. A new power shack was also erected by the PWD team.


Planning the new main base is progressing well, and it is hoped to have it erected during January-February, 1971. The old buildings, erected in 1962, arc now 35 feet under snow and ice, and are still withstanding all stresses and strains.

 References: Vol.5, No.9, March 1970 page 387-388

Mmymtmmx* a N E W S B U L L E T I N – DocsLib



S/Y Belgica  125th Anniversary departure

In 1897, the young Belgian “Adrien de Gerlache”, bought a Norwegian ship called ‘Patria’. He changed the name into “Belgica” and set sail to become the first man ever to scientifically explore Antarctica during the winter.

Monday  August 16 , 897. The port of Antwerp is filled with people. The National Anthem is being played, canon shots of joy are heard across the River. The Belgica leaves the harbour, setting sail to Antarctica. Other than a lost whaler, there has never been a soul nearby…

After three months of darkness, -40°C, storms, despair, desertion, mutiny, starvation, disease and death, the Belgica returned to Antwerp on the 5th of November 1899. The crew was received in triumph. Even before they disembarked, De Gerlache and his officers were knighted by The Order of King Leopold. The Belgica Expedition returned with an enormous amount of valuable scientific information.

To celebrate the 125th Anniversary  departure Antarctic Expedition Antwerp  (16th Aug.1892-16th Aug. 2022) a new commemorative stamp and a special envelope have been recently issued  by Belgian Post

TNX BPES (Belgian Polar Expedition Society)

Dr. Eddy De Busschere


The Belgian Antarctic Expedition of 1897–1899 was the first expedition to winter in the Antarctic region. Led by Adrien de Gerlache de Gomery aboard the R/V Belgica, it was the first Belgian Antarctic expedition and is considered the first expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration. Among its members were Frederick Cook and Roald Amundsen, explorers who would later attempt the respective conquests of the North and South Poles.

Most recent History

In 1916,  Belgica was sold to the Store Norske Spitsbergen Kulkompagni , renamed Isfjord and converted to a passenger and cargo ship.  She was rebuilt to include cabins for female staff. Isfjord was used to carry coal and passengers between Svalbard and northern Norway. In 1918, she was sold and renamed Belgica, being converted to a factory ship.

Requisitioned by the British in April 1940, she was used as a depôt ship, being scuttled when the Franco-British Expeditionary Force evacuated Harstad in northern Norway. 

Polar ice couldn’t break the Belgica but war could. The ship sank in 1940 nearby the coast of Harstad (Norway), in mysterious circumstances.
50 Years later, on Easter of 1990, a Norwegian diving club discovered the wreck, only 22 meters deep and 200 meters off the coastline. It was immediately clear that the remains of the Belgica could not be restored. But they did contain enough valuable information for the ship to be rebuilt.
See the video at:

Non-profit organization “De Steenschuit” is now rebuilding the original Belgica. The New Belgica will be a full scale museum replica of the original vessel. The University of Ghent has taken the initiative to design architectural plans, based on photographs, sketches and drawings of the original BELGICA wreck. The New Belgica will be built with durable materials and eco-friendly construction methods. 
Read more at: The New Belgica Project | PSA Antwerp (